Door het verhitten van voedsel ontstaan gevaarlijke verbindingen

In het kort:

Een koekenpan is niet wezenlijk anders dan een reageerbuis; als je de inhoud verhit, vinden er chemische processen plaats, en ontstaan er nieuwe verbindingen.

Door ons voedsel te koken ontstaan er gevaarlijke verbindingen, met name in eiwitrijk voedsel. Dergelijke verbindingen kunnen kanker veroorzaken, het functioneren van je hersenen verstoren, wat ten koste kan gaan van je gemoedstoestand, je concentratievermogen en je slaap, en kunnen zelfs hersencellen vernietigen, wat je uiteindelijk dement kan maken.

Om dit allemaal te voorkomen moet je zo weinig mogelijk bereid voedsel eten, en zou je in plaats daarvan heel veel fruit(sappen) en wat rauw dierlijk voedsel (zoals sashimi en/of eigeel) moeten eten. Deze combinatie voorziet je van alle benodigde voedingsstoffen.

Chemisch Experiment

Als je voedsel kookt, bakt, stoomt, in de microwave doet, of op wat-voor-manier-dan-ook verhit, ben je altijd bezig met een chemisch experiment. Je kan het zien, ruiken en proeven; er vinden duidelijke veranderingen plaats. Niet alleen vindt er denaturatie plaats (het ‘openvouwen van eiwitten’) en worden ook onverteerbare vezels gemakkelijker verteerbaar, maar raken er ook voedingsstoffen beschadigd (waardoor er bijvoorbeeld goede cholesterol wordt omgezet in slechte cholesterol) en ontstaan er geheel nieuwe verbindingen, zoals bij de reactie van Maillard. Een deel van die nieuwe verbindingen zijn zogenaamde heterocyclische aminen (HCA). Sommige van die HCA (zoals de meeste beta-carbolinen) zijn direct of indirect verslavend verslavend. (1)

Dergelijke HCA ontstaan onder de invloed van hitte door de reactie van eiwitten met name met korte suikers of creatine (zoals vooral aanwezig in rood vlees) en nitraat (zoals aanwezig in grioenten)

Een paar voorbeelden:

tryptofaan + form- / acet-aldehyde = 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (pro-mutageen) (2)

tryptofaan + glycolaldehyde = 1-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (3)

serotonine + formaldehyde = 6-hydroxy-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (5)

serotonine + acetaldehyde = 6-hydroxy-1-methyl-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (6)

tyramine + nitrite = 3-diazotyramine(4-(2-aminoethyl))-6-diazo-2,4-cyclohexadienone (carcin.)(7)

zout + nitriet + eiwit / suiker = 2-chloro-4-methylthiobutanoate (mutageen) (8)

glutamaat + suiker = 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-(1,2-a:3′,2′-d)imidazole (carcinogeen) (9)

glutamaat + suiker = 2-aminodipyrido-(1,2-a:3′,2′-d)imidazole (carcinogeen) (9)

Als aldehyden (van ‘suikers’) reageren met cyclische aminen of -aminozuren (zoals tryptofaan, tryptamine, serotonine, fenylalanine, tyrosine, dopamine, tyramine, aniline), ontstaan er met name beta-carbolinen en isoquinolinen. Als er creatinine (in vlees) bij betrokken is, ontstaan er veelal imidazoquinolinen en imidaziquinoxalinen. (10)

In wat voor voedsel?

In al het voedsel dat je verhit ontstaan dergelijke HCA.

Vrijwel al het bereide voedsel bevat bijvoorbeeld:

9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indool = beta-carboline = tryptofaan / tryptamine + aldehyden (11)

1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indool = 1-methyl-beta-carboline = tryptofaan / tryptamine + aldehyden (11)

Dergelijke verbindingen beïnvloeden specifieke (benzodiazepine) neurotransmitterreceptoren in de hersenen, en via deze receptoren ook een heel scala aan andere neurotransmitters. (12)

Als zoals bovengenaamde verbindingen verder reageren met aminen zoals aniline, worden ze zelfs mutageen (23), wat betekent dat ze mutaties aan cel-DNA kunnen veroorzaken.

Hoeveel van dergelijke HCA er ontstaan hangt af van hoe eiwitrijk het voedsel is, en van de mate van verhitting. (14)

Omdat rood vlees niet alleen veel eiwitten bevat, maar ook veel creatinine (wat in creatine omgezet wordt), bevat verhit vlees de meeste HCA, en dan natuurlijk vooral wanneer het gegrild wordt (vanwege de intense hitte) (15).

Naast rood vlees, bevat ook bereide vis, -soja en -gevogelte veel HCA. (16)

Ook zogenaamde ‘smaakversterkers’ en bouillon bevatten eiwitconcentraten en daardoor veel HCA. (11) Maar ook bereid voedsel dat relatief weinig eiwit bevat, zoals granen (17) , groenten (18), en ook bier, sojasaus en zelfs sinaasappelsap uit pak (19) (dat altijd een behandeling heeft ondergaan en van nature veel vrije aminozuren bevat) bevat dergelijke HCA.

Bijvoorbeeld:

Vlees bevat veel creatinine (20)

2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyfenyl)-imidazo-(4,5-b)pyridine (mutag.) = creatine + tyrosine + glucose (21)

Soja bevat globulinen

2-amino-9H-pyrido(2,3-b)indole (mutageen) (22) = soja-globulinen + suikers (23)

2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido(2,3-b)indole (mutageen) (24) = soja-globulinen + suikers (23)

Vis, indien bereid (25);

3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole (mutageen)(26) = tryptofaan + acetaldehyde (27)

3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole (mutageen)(26) = tryptofaan + acetaldehyde (28)

Groenten kunnen nitriet bevatten

cancerous N-nitroso-compounds = aminen + nitriet + suikers

specific N-nitroso-compound ;

4-(2-aminoethyl)-6-diazo-2,4-cyclohexadienone (cancerous) = tyramine + nitriet + suikers (7)

Koolsoorten bevatten thiocyanaten ;

giftige (29) tetrahydro-beta-carboline-derivates = isothiocyanaat + tyramine / serotonine etc.

Andere, niet HCA-achtige verbindingen:

Groenten bevatten ook flavonoïden

mutagene glycosiden (30) = flavonoïden + verhitting

Wat voor invloed hebben dergelijke HCA?

1 : Ze kunnen als neurotransmitters fungeren

Sommige HCA, zoals beta-carbolines, hebben een directe invloed op bepaalde receptoren in de hersenen (zoals die voor benzodiazepine). Dat is mogelijk doordat het lichaam zelf ook beta-carbolinen aanmaakt om als neurotransmitters dienst te doen.

Daarnaast kunnen HCA ook de receptoren voor andere neurotransmitters bezetten, zoals die voor serotonine en dopamine. Dit is met name het geval wanneer de basis van dergelijke HCA is opgebouwd uit dezelfde aminen (als de basis van serotonine en dopamine).

Een paar voorbeelden:

3-methoxycarbonyl-beta-carboline werkt via meerdere receptoren (31) en verhoogt zowel de afgifte als afbraak van dopamine, zoals ook stress doet. (32) Het versterkt ‘irrationele’ agressie (33), en vermindert sociaal gedrag (34).

3-ethoxycarbonyl-beta-carboline heeft een hypnotische en verdovende werking (35), remt onderzoekend gedrag (36) en sociale interactie. (37) In dominante individuen versterkt het de agressie maar vermindert de seksuele drang. (38) Het verhoogt de het epinephrine- (39) en cortisol-gehalte in het bloed, de bloeddruk en de hartslag (40), en verhoogt de afgifte en afbraak van dopamine (41), zoals ook stress dat doet.

3-Hydroxymethyl-beta-carboline; Alhoewel het een hypnotische invloed heeft (42), doet het je slechter slapen (43).

3-N-methylcarboxamide-beta-carboline versterkt roekeloos (44) en agressief gedrag (45), en remt de seksuele drang. (46) Over het algemeen remt het de afgifte van norepinefrine (47), maar stimuleert dit juist plaatselijk. (48) Het vehoogt de afgifte van glutamaat (49) ACTH en Substance P (50), verhoogt de bloeddruk (51) en, alhoewel verdovend (52), veroorzaakt lichamelijke stress (53).

3-Methylcarbonyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline blokkeert de GABA receptoren (54), verhoogt het gehalte aan GABA en glycine, verlaagt het gehalte aan glutamaat en aspartaat (55), verhoogt de afgifte van corticosterone, epinefrine en norepinefrine (56), verlaagt de afgifte van serotonine (57) en verhoogt de aktiviteit van de norepinefrinereceptoren. (58

Het versterkt de effecten van cocaine (59), zorgt voor onrust (60) en onderdukt de aktiviteit van je immuunsysteem. (61)

3-Ethylcarbonyl-6-benzyloxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline is verdovend (62), zorgt voor geheugenverlies (63), en blokkeert de interactie tussen beta-oestradiol en LH (lutinizing hormone). (64)

3-Ethylcarbonyl-5-benzyloxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline heeft een sterk eetlust-opwekkende invloed. (65)

3-Ethylcarbonyl-5-isopropyl-4-methyl-beta-carboline veroorzaakt rusteloosheid (66), slapeloosheid (67), en vermindert sociaal gedrag. (68)

Naast de ‘normale’ beta-carbolinen, bevat bereid voedsel ook tetrahydro-beta-carbolinen. (69)

Tetrahydro-beta-carboline stimuleert de hang naar alcohol (70), verhoogt de hartslag en de bloeddruk (71), en verhoogt net zoals 5-methoxy-tetrahydro-beta-carboline en 5-hydroxy-tetrahydro-beta-carboline het prolactinegehalte en beinvloed de serotonine receptoren. (72)

6-methoxy-tetrahydro-beta-carboline verhoogt de afgifte van norepinefrine en ACTH, en verlaagt de afgifte van serotonine en groeihormoon. (73)

2-Fenylpyrazolo(4,3-c)quinoline-3(5H)-one is verdovend (74), verhoogt het corticosterone-gehalte (75) en verlaagt het aantal van specifieke benzodiazepine-receptoren in de hersenen. (76)

2 : Ze kunnen kanker veroorzaken

Onderdeel van het ontstaan van kanker zijn mutagene verbindingen die specifiek cel DNA beschadigen.

Sommige HCA in bereid voedsel zijn mutagenen. Vandaar dat is aangetoond dat naarmate je meer HCA binnen krijgt, er ook altijd meer DNA beschadigd raakt. (77)

De mate waarin HCA kanker kunnen veroorzaken hangt mede af van hoeveel stikstofatomen ze bevatten. (78)

Door de aanwezigheid van zout, eiwitten en nitriet kunnen HCA meer stikstof gaan bevatten. En HCA met extra stikstof zijn extra kankerverwekkend. (79)

Enkele van de meest wijdverspreide mutagene HCA in bereid voedsel zijn:

pyridoindool (80) (amino-gamma-carboline)

2-amino-9H-pyrido(2,3-b)indool (81) (amino-alfa-carboline)

2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido(2,3-b) (82)

3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indool (83)

3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indool (84)

1-methyl-3-carbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (85).

4-aminobifenyl (86)

4,4′-methylenedianiline (87)

3,2′-dimethyl-4-aminobifenyl (88)

1,2-dimethylhydrazine (89)

fhenyl-hydroxylamine (90)

O-acetyl-N-(5-fhenyl-2-pyridyl)-hydroxylamine (91)

2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (92)

2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (93)

2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (94)

2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (95)

2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (96)

2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (97)

2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)-quinoxaline (98)

2-amino-n,n,n-trimethylimidazo-pyridine (99)

2-amino-n,n-dimethylimidazopyridine (100)

2-amino-4-hydroxymethyl-3,8-dimethylimidazo-(4,5-g)-quinoxaline (101)

2-amino-1,7,9-trimethylimidazo-(4,5-g)-quinoxaline (101)

2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4,5-b)-pyridine (102)

3 : Ze kunnen hersenziektes veroorzaken

Sommige HCA zijn direct giftig voor de hersenen, zoals bijvoorbeeld normale quinolinen, welke de hersenen binnen dringen via het dopamine transport systeem. (103)

Andere veelvoorkomende HCA (zoals pyridinen (104) en beta-carbolinen (105)) worden pas giftig voor de hersenen nadat ze gedeeltelijk zijn afgebroken door verschillende enzymen in ons lichaam (106). Van nature beschermen deze enzymen onze hersenen tegen giftige stoffen zoals die bijvoorbeeld bij bosbranden in de lucht voorkomen, maar sommige (‘moderne’) HCA worden door die enzymen per ongeluk in stoffen omgezet die juist extra giftig zijn. (107) Blijkbaar heeft moeder natuur er geen rekening mee gehouden dat wij ons voedsel gingen verhitten.

De specifieke giftigheid van de verschillende HCA hangt af van hun moleculaire structuur. Zo zijn pyridinen ‘alleen maar’ giftig voor de dopamine-receptoren (108), omdat ze zich alleen maar aan die receptoren kunnen hechten. Gedeeltelijk afgebroken pyridinen kunnen schadelijker zijn dan de originelen (109).

Ondanks hun ‘selectieve aanhechting’ kunnen pyridinen niet alleen het gehalte aan dopamine verlagen (110), maar ook het gehalte aan norepinephrine (111) en vooral het serotoninegehalte (112).

De vernietiging van receptoren in de hersenen kan uiteindelijk tot dementie, de ziekte van Parkinson en/of schizofrenie leiden.

Sommige van de HCA die giftig zijn voor je hersenen:

3-N-butylcarbonyl-beta-carboline (113)

3-N-methylcarboxamide-beta-carboline (113)

2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (114)

2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (114)

quinolinaat (115)

quisqualinaat (116)

tetrahydroisoquinoline (117)

1-benzyl-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (117)

N-methyl-(R)-salsolinol (118)

N-methyl-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (119)

6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (119)

2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (120)

6-hydroxy-dopamine (121)

N-methyl-4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (122)

1-methyl-4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (123)

1-methyl-4-fenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (124).

4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (125)

4-fenylpyridine (125)

3-acetylpyridine (126)

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine (127)

1-methyl-4-cyclohexic-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (128)

1-methyl-4-(2′-methylfenyl)-1,2,3,6–tetrahydropyridine (129)

1-methyl-4-(2′-ethylfenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (130)

1-methyl-4-(3′-methoxyfenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (131)

1-methyl-4-(methylpyrrol-2-yl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (132)

Alhoewel giftige pyridinen er voor zorgen dat er meer oxidatieve radicalen ontstaan (133) en het gehalte aan antioxidanten verlagen (134), kan je het beschadigen van je hersenen door giftige pyridinen voor geen meter voorkomen door extra antioxidanten (als supplement) in te nemen. (135)

Toevoegingen

Het bereiden van voedsel maakt oneetbaar voedsel eetbaar.

Extra toevoegingen zorgen er voor dat dit voedsel langer houdbaar blijft, en dat je er meer van gaat eten.

‘Smaakversterkers’ bijvoorbeeld, zijn veelal eiwitconcentraten, vol met lichamelijk verslavende beta-carbolinen die je meer doen eten.

Glutamaat (erg populair in de Chinese keuken) beïnvloedt diezelfde benzodiazepinereceptoren indirect.

Wat kan je doen?

Consumeer zo weinig mogelijk bereid voedsel, en dan met name eiwitrijk kant-en-klaar voedsel.

Consumeer zoveel mogelijk fruit(sappen) en wat vers rauw dierlijk voedsel (zoals vis en eigeel)

Bronnen

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